Glossary of Billiard Terms Page 2

CUE TIP. (General) A piece of specially processed leather or other fibrous or pliable material attached to the shaft end of the cue that contacts the cue ball when a shot is executed.

CUSHION. (General) The cloth-covered rubber which borders the inside of the rails on carom and pocket billiard tables; together the cushions form the outer perimeter of the basic playing surface.

CUT SHOT. (Pocket games) A shot in which the cue ball contacts the object ball to one side or the other of full center, thus driving it in a direction other than that of the initial cue ball path.

D. (Snooker) An area, semi-circular in shape, with the straight side formed by the line drawn between the spot for the yellow and the spot for the green measured 29 inches out from the face of the bottom cushion (sometimes referred to as the baulk line) and the semi-circle is determined by the size of the table being used.

DEAD BALL. (Pocket games) A cue ball stroked in such a manner that virtually all of the speed and/or spin of the cue ball is transferred to the object ball, the cue ball retaining very little or none after contact.

DEAD BALL SHOT. (Pocket games) A shot in which a dead ball stroke is employed; often called a kill shot, because of the relative lack of cue ball motion after contact with the object ball.

DEAD COMBINATION. (Pocket games) See combination on.

DIAMONDS. (General) Inlays or markings on the table rails that are used as reference or target points. The diamonds are essential for the utilization of numerous mathematical systems employed by carom and pocket games players.

DRAW SHOT. (General) A shot in which the cue ball is struck below center, and the resulting back spin causes the cue ball to return towards the player after full contact with an object ball.

DROP POCKETS. (Pocket games) Type of pockets with no automatic return of the balls to the foot end of the table; balls must be removed manually.

DOUBLE ELIMINATION. (General) A tournament format in which a player is not eliminated until he has sustained two match losses.

DOUBLE HIT. (General) A shot on which the cue ball is struck twice by the cue tip on the same stroke.

DOUBLE ROUND ROBIN. (General) A tournament format in which each contestant in a field plays each of the other players twice.

ENGLISH. (General) Side spin applied to the cue ball by striking it off center; used to alter the natural roll of the cue ball and/or the object ball.

FEATHER SHOT. (General) A shot in which the cue ball barely touches or grazes the object ball; an extremely thin cut.

FERRULE. (General) A piece of protective material (usually plastic, horn or metal) at the end of the cue shaft, onto which the cue tip is attached.

FOLLOW SHOT. (General) A shot in which the cue ball is struck above center and the resulting forward spin causes the cue ball to roll forward after contact with an object ball.

FOLLOW-THROUGH. (General) The movement of the cue after contact with the cue ball through the area previously occupied by the cue ball.

FOOT OF TABLE. (General) The end of a carom or pocket billiard table at which the balls are racked or positioned at the start of a game.

FOOT SPOT. (General) The point on the foot end of the table where imaginary lines drawn between the center diamonds of the short rails and the second diamonds of the long rails intersect.

FOOT STRING. (General) A line on the foot end of the table between the second diamonds of the long rails, passing through the foot spot. The foot string is never drawn on the table, and has no use in play.

FORCE. (General) The power applied on the stroke to the cue ball, which may result in distortion and altering of natural angles and action of the ball.

FORCE DRAW. (General) A shot with extreme follow, usually directly at and then "through" an object ball.

FORCE FOLLOW. (General) A follow shot with extreme overspin applied to the cue ball, with the term generally used in reference to shots in which the cue ball is shot directly at and then "through" an object ball, with a pronounced hesitation or stop before the overspin propels the cue ball forward in the general direction of the stroke.

FOUL. (General) An infraction of the rules of play, as defined in either the general or the specific game rules. (Not all rule infractions are fouls.) Fouls result in a penalty, also dependent on specific game rules.

FOUL STROKE. (General) A stroke on which a foul takes place.

FRAME. (Snooker) The equivalent of one game in snooker.

FREE BALL. (Snooker) After a foul, if the cue ball is snookered, the referee shall state "Free Ball." If the non-offending player takes the next stroke he may nominate any ball as on, and for this stroke, such ball shall be regarded as, and acquire the value of, the ball on.

FREE BREAK. (Pocket games) An opening break shot in which a wide spread of the object balls may be achieved without penalty or risk. Free breaks are detailed in individual games rules.

FROZEN. (General) A ball touching another ball or cushion.

FULL BALL. (General) Contact of the cue ball with an object ball at a contact point on a line bisecting the centers of the cue ball and object ball.

GAME. The course of play that starts when the referee has finished racking the balls, and ends at the conclusion of a legal shot which pockets the last required ball. In 14.1 continuous, a game lasts several racks.

GAME BALL. (General) The ball which, if pocketed legally, would produce victory in a game.

GATHER SHOT. (Carom games) A shot on which appropriate technique and speed are employed to drive one or more balls away from the other(s) in such a manner that when the stroke is complete, the balls have come back together closely enough to present a comparatively easy scoring opportunity for the next shot.

GRIP. (General) The manner in which the butt of the cue is held in the hand.

GULLY TABLE. (Pocket games) A table with pockets and a return system that delivers the balls as they are pocketed to a collection bin on the foot end of the table.

HANDICAPPING. (General) Modifications in the scoring and/or rules of games to enable players of differing abilities to compete on more even terms.

HEAD OF TABLE. (General) The end of a carom or pocket billiard table from which the opening break is performed; the end normally marked with the manufacturer's nameplate.

HEAD SPOT. (General) The point on the head of the table where imaginary lines drawn between the center diamonds of the short rails and the second diamonds of the long rails intersect.

HEAD STRING. (General) A line on the head end of the table between the second diamonds of the long rails, passing through the head spot.

HICKEY. (Snooker Golf) Any foul.

HIGH RUN. (14.1 Continuous) During a specified segment of play, the greatest number of balls scored in one turn (inning) at the table.

HOLD. (General) English which stops the cue ball from continuing the course of natural roll it would take after having been driven in a certain direction.

INNING. (General) A turn at the table by a player, and which may last for several racks in some pocket games.

IN HAND. (Pocket games) See cue ball in hand.

IN HAND BEHIND THE HEAD STRING. (Pocket games) See cue ball in hand behind the head string.

IN-OFF. (Snooker) A losing hazard; that is, when the cue ball enters a pocket. The snooker equivalent of a scratch.

Glossary of Billiard Terms Page 3