Glossary of Billiard Terms Page 4

ROUND ROBIN. (General) A tournament format in which each contestant plays each of the other players once.

RUNNING ENGLISH. (General) Sidespin applied to the cue ball which causes it to rebound from an object ball or a cushion at a narrower angle and at a faster speed than it would if struck at the same speed and direction without english.

RUN. (General) The total of consecutive scores, points or counts made by a player in one inning. The term is also used to indicate the total number of full short-rack games won without a missed shot in a match or tournament.

SAFETY. (General) Defensive positioning of the balls so as to minimize the opponent's chances to score. (The nature and rules concerning safety play are decidedly different in specific games.) Player's inning ends after a safety play.

SCRATCH. (Carom games) To score a point largely by accident, due to an unanticipated kiss, unplanned time-shot, etc.

SCRATCH. (Pocket games) The cue ball is going into a pocket on a stroke.

SEEDING. (General) Pre-determined initial pairings or advanced positioning of players in a field of tournament competition.

SET. (General) Pre-determined number of games necessary to win a match.

SHAFT. (General) The thinner part of a cue, on which the cue tip is attached. On a two-piece cue, the shaft extends from the cue tip to the joint.

SHAKE BOTTLE. (Pocket games) See bottle.

SHOT. An action that begins at the instant the cue tip contacts the cue ball, and ends when all balls in play stop rolling and spinning.

SHOT CLOCK. (General) Any timing device used to gauge the time limit in which a player is allowed to play a shot. The timing device must have at least the functions of a stop watch: reset to zero, start, and stop. A simple wrist watch without timing functions is not sufficient.

SHORT. (General) Usually refers to a ball which, due to english and stroke, travels a path with narrower angles than those for a ball struck without english.

SHORT-RACK. (Pocket games) Games which utilize fewer than 15 countable object balls.

SINGLE ELIMINATION. (General) A tournament format in which a single loss eliminates a player from the competition.

SNAKE. (Carom games) A shot in which the use of english causes the cue ball to make three or more cushion contacts, though utilizing only two different cushions. Also called a double-the-rail shot.

SNOOKERED. (Snooker) The condition of incoming player's cue ball position when he cannot shoot in a straight line and contact all portions of an on ball directly facing the cue ball (because of balls not "on" that block the path.

SPLIT DOUBLE ELIMINATION. (General) A modification of the double elimination tournament format, in which the field is divided into sections, with one player emerging from each of the sections to compete for the championship, in a single showdown match for the championship.

SPLIT HIT. A shot in which it cannot be determined which object ball(s) the cue ball contacted first, due to the close proximity of the object balls.

SPOT. (General) The thin, circular piece of cloth or paper glued onto the cloth to indicate the spot locality (i.e.., head spot, center spot, foot spot); also an expression to describe a handicap.

SPOT BALL. (Carom games) The white ball differentiated from the clear by on or more markings; usually spots, dots or circles.

SPOT SHOT. (Pocket games) Player shoots a ball on the foot spot with the cue ball in hand behind the head string.

SPOTTING BALLS. (General) Replacing balls to the table in positions as dictated by specific game rules.

STANCE. (General The position of the body during shooting.

STOP SHOT. (Pocket games) A shot in which the cue ball stops immediately upon striking the object ball.

STRIKER. (Snooker) The player who is about to shoot and has yet to complete his inning.

STROKE. (General) The movement of the cue as a shot is executed.

SUCCESSIVE FOULS. (Pocket games) Fouls made on consecutive strokes by the same player, also called consecutive fouls.

TABLE IN POSITION. (General) Term used to indicate that the object balls remain unmoved following a shot.

THROW SHOT. (Pocket games) 1. A shot in which english alters the path of the object ball. 2. A combination shot of frozen or near frozen object balls in which to rubbing of the first ball across the second ball pulls the shot away from the line joining the centers of the two balls.

TIME SHOT. (General) A shot in which the cue ball (most often) moves another ball into a different position and then continues on to meet one of the moved balls for a score.

TOP CUSHION. (Snooker) The cushion located at the foot of a snooker table--closest to the black spot.

TRIANGLE. (Pocket games) The triangular device used to place the balls in position for the start of most games.

YELLOW BALL. (Carom games) In international competition the spot ball has been replaced by a yellow ball without any markings.