Touching a Ball: While balls are in play it is a foul if the striker touches any object ball or if the striker touches the cue ball with anything other than the tip during a legal stroke.
Snookered: The cue ball is snookered when a direct stroke in a straight line to any part of every ball on is obstructed by a ball or balls not on. If there is any one ball that is not so obstructed, the cue ball is not snookered. If in-hand within the Half Circle, the cue ball is snookered only if obstructed from all positions on or within the Half Circle. If the cue ball is obstructed by more than one ball, the one nearest to the cue ball is the effective snookering ball.
Angled: The cue ball is angled when a direct stroke in a straight line to any part of every ball on is obstructed by a corner of the cushion. If there is any one ball on that is not so obstructed, the cue ball is not angled. If angled after a foul the referee or player will state "Angled Ball", and the striker has the choice to either (1) play from that position or (2) play from in hand within the Half Circle.
Occupied: A spot is said to be occupied if a ball cannot be placed on it without its touching another ball.
Touching Ball: If the cue ball is touching another ball which is, or can be, on, the referee or player shall state "Touching Ball." Thereafter the striker must play away from it or it is a push stroke (foul). No penalty is incurred for thus playing away if (1) the ball is not on; the ball is on and the striker nominates such ball; or (3) the ball is on and the striker nominates, and first hits, another ball. [If the referee considers that a touching ball has moved through an agency other than the player, it is not a foul.]
Push Stroke: A push stroke is a foul and is made when the tip of the cue remains in contact with the cue ball (1) when the cue ball makes contact with the object ball, or (2) after the cue ball has commenced its forward motion. Provided that where the cue ball and an object ball are almost touching, it shall be deemed a legal stroke if the cue ball hits the finest possible edge of the object ball.
Miss: The striker shall to the best of his ability endeavor to hit the ball on. If the referee considers the rule infringed he shall call foul and a "miss." The incoming player (1) may play the ball(s) as they lie, or (2) may request that the ball(s) be returned to the original position and have the offending player play the stroke again. Note: if the ball on cannot possibly be hit, the striker is judged to be attempting to hit the ball on.
Free Ball: After a foul, if the cue ball is snookered, the referee or player shall state "Free Ball." If the non-offending layer takes the next stroke he may nominate any ball as on. For this stroke, such ball shall be regarded as, and acquire the value of, the ball on. It is a foul should the cue ball fail to first hit, or - except when only the pink and black remain on the table - be snookered by, the free ball. If the "free ball" is potted, is is spotted, and the value of the ball on is scored. if the ball on is potted it is scored. If both the "free ball" and the ball on are potted, only the value of the ball on is scored.
If a foul is committed:
1. the player who committed the foul incurs the penalty prescribed (which is added to the opponent's score), and has to play again if requested by the next player. Once such a request has been made it cannot be withdrawn. 2. should more than one foul be committed in the same stroke the highest value penalty shall be incurred. 3. any ball improperly spotted shall remain where positioned, except that if off the table it shall be correctly spotted.
Penalties for Fouls
The following are fouls and incur a penalty of four points or the higher one prescribed:
1. value of the ball on -
a) when the balls are still moving from the previous shot. b) the cue ball more than once (double hit). c) without at least one foot on the floor. d) out of turn. e) improperly from in hand within the Half Circle.
f) the cue ball to miss all object balls. g) the cue ball to enter a pocket. h) a snooker with free ball. i) a jump shot.
2. value of the ball on or ball concerned -
a) a ball not on to enter a pocket. b) the cue ball to first hit a ball not on. c) a push stroke. d) by striking with a ball not correctly spotted. e) by touching a ball with other than the tip of the cue. f) by forcing a ball off the table.
3. value of the ball on or higher value of the two balls by causing the cue ball to hit simultaneously two balls other than two reds or a "free ball" and the ball on.
4. penalty of seven points is incurred if -
a) after potting a red commits a foul before nominating a color.
b) uses a ball off the table for any purpose.
c) plays at reds in successive strokes.
d) uses as the cue ball any ball other than the white one.